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While absorption methods can extract almost all of the heavier NGLs, the lighter hydrocarbons, such as ethane, are often more difficult to recover from the natural gas stream. In certain instances, it is economic to simply leave the lighter NGLs in the natural gas stream.

However, if it is economic to extract ethane and other lighter hydrocarbons, cryogenic processes are required for high recovery rates. Essentially, cryogenic Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA consist of dropping the temperature of the gas stream to around -120 degrees Fahrenheit. There are a number of different ways of chilling the gas to these temperatures, but one of the most effective is known as the Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA expander process.

In this process, external refrigerants are used to cool the natural gas stream. Blood transfusion, an expansion turbine is used to rapidly expand the chilled gases, which causes the temperature to drop significantly.

This rapid temperature drop condenses ethane and other hydrocarbons in the gas stream, while maintaining methane in gaseous form. This process allows for the recovery of about 90 to 95 percent of the ethane originally in the gas stream. In addition, the expansion turbine is Polysaccharide-Iron Complex Capsules (Niferex-150 Forte)- Multum to convert Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA of the energy released when the natural gas stream is expanded into recompressing the gaseous Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA effluent, thus saving energy costs associated Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA extracting ethane.

The extraction of NGLs from the natural gas stream produces both cleaner, purer natural Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA, as well as the valuable hydrocarbons that are the NGLs themselves.

Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA NGLs have been removed from the natural gas stream, they must be broken down Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA their base components to be useful. That is, the mixed stream of different NGLs must be separated out. The process used to accomplish this task is called fractionation.

Fractionation works based on the different boiling points of the different hydrocarbons in the NGL stream. Invirase (Saquinavir Mesylate)- Multum, fractionation occurs in stages consisting of the boiling off of hydrocarbons one by one. The name of a particular fractionator gives an idea as to its Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA, as it is conventionally named for the hydrocarbon that is boiled off.

The entire fractionation Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA is broken down into steps, starting Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA the removal of the lighter NGLs from the stream.

The particular fractionators are used in the following order:By proceeding from the lightest hydrocarbons to the heaviest, it is possible to separate the different NGLs reasonably easily. To learn more about the Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA of NGLs, click here. In addition to water, oil, and NGL removal, one of the most important parts of gas processing involves the removal of sulfur and carbon dioxide.

Natural gas from some wells contains significant amounts of sulfur and carbon dioxide. Sour gas is undesirable because the sulfur compounds it contains can be extremely harmful, even lethal, to breathe. Sour gas can also be extremely corrosive. In addition, the sulfur that Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA in the natural gas stream can be extracted and marketed on its own.

In fact, according to the USGS, U. For information on the production of sulfur in the United States, visit the USGS here. Sulfur Levofloxacin Ophthalmic Solution 0.5% (Quixin)- FDA in natural gas as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and the gas is usually considered sour if the hydrogen sulfide content exceeds 5.

The primary process for sweetening sour natural gas is quite similar to the processes of glycol dehydration Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA NGL absorption. In this case, however, amine solutions are used to remove the hydrogen sulfide. The sour gas is run through a tower, which contains the amine solution.

This solution has an affinity for sulfur, and absorbs it much like glycol absorbing water. There are two principle amine solutions used, monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). Either of these compounds, in liquid form, will absorb sulfur compounds from natural gas as it passes through. The effluent gas is virtually free of sulfur compounds, and thus loses its sour Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets (Xodol)- Multum status.

Like the process for NGL extraction and glycol dehydration, the amine solution used can be regenerated (that is, the absorbed sulfur is removed), allowing it to be reused to treat more sour gas. Although most sour gas sweetening involves the amine absorption process, it is also possible to use solid desiccants like iron sponges Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA remove the sulfide and carbon dioxide.

Sulfur can be sold and used if reduced to its elemental form. Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA sulfur is a bright yellow powder like material, and can often be seen in large piles near gas treatment plants, as is shown.

In order to recover elemental sulfur from the gas processing plant, the sulfur containing discharge from a gas sweetening process must be further treated. The process used to recover sulfur is known Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA the Claus process, and involves using thermal and catalytic reactions to extract the elemental sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide solution.

For more information on sulfur recovery and the Claus process, click here. In all, the Claus process is usually able to recover 97 percent of the sulfur that has been removed from the natural gas stream. To learn more about the environmental effects of sour gas treatment and flaring, click here.

Gas processing is an instrumental piece of the natural gas value chain. It is instrumental in ensuring that the natural gas intended for use is as clean and pure as possible, making it the clean burning and environmentally sound Gabitril (Tiagabine Hydrochloride)- FDA choice.

Once the natural gas has been fully processed, and is ready to be consumed, it must be transported from those areas that produce natural gas, to those areas that require it. Click here to learn about the transportation of natural gas.

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Comments:

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