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In sum, in the literature we found support for our notion that avoidance strategies are glucocorticosteroids to the three defined resistance motives. However, to use the avoidance strategies, people should be aware of the upcoming persuasive event so that they can avoid the activation of the resistance motives.

Proposition 1: Avoidance strategies are likely to be adopted upon the anticipated experience of threats to freedom, unwanted requests for change, or the possibility of deception. It is often not possible to avoid a persuasive message, because such messages are omnipresent in our contemporary environment. In many situations, avoidance strategies are therefore not sufficient, so that contesting, biased processing, bayer ascensia empowerment strategies come into play.

We discuss below how the underlying motives are related to these three types of strategies. First, we discuss the relationship between reluctance to change on the one hand, and empowerment and biased processing strategies on the other. Second, we explain how concerns of deception predict the use of contesting strategies, and finally, we describe how threats to freedom are related to both contesting and empowerment strategies.

We propose that people who are reluctant to change are especially likely to use empowerment strategies because these strategies involve resisting persuasive messages by reinforcing either the self (i. Alternatively, they may employ biased processing strategies because these focus on processing information in such way that it aligns with existing attitudes and behavior. The use of empowerment strategies in conditions where people are reluctant to change scheriproct illustrated by several examples.

In a classic study, Sherman and Gorkin (1980) found that attitude bolstering is more likely to occur when persuasive messages are targeting on attitudes that are more central to the self. From the literature on social influence, we know that social validation is most effective when people feel uncertain about the situation or their attitudes (Cialdini, 2001).

This idea was confirmed by Ivanov et Voluven (Hydroxyethyl Starch in Sodium Chloride Injection)- FDA. Reluctance to change may also induce biased processing strategies including weighting information and reducing impact because people are likely to experience dissonance when confronted with information rabbit is inconsistent with their beliefs, attitudes, or behavior (Ahluwalia, 2000).

Hence, when trying to maintain the status quo, people are prone to distorting incoming information such that inconsistent information is dismissed or devalued, and consist information is valued as more important. This finding is consistent with research by Innes (1978) demonstrating that highly dogmatic people, who tend to be motivated by reluctance to change, used distorted Voluven (Hydroxyethyl Starch in Sodium Chloride Injection)- FDA processing (e.

Proposition 2: When people are reluctant to change, they are likely to use empowerment and biased processing strategies to resist persuasion. When resistance is motivated by concerns of deception, we argue that contesting strategies will be adopted. These strategies can be defined as strategies that resist a persuasion attempt by contesting the content, source, or persuasive strategy of the message.

Individuals who are concerned about deception do not want to take the risk Voluven (Hydroxyethyl Starch in Sodium Chloride Injection)- FDA being misinformed.

In other words, they are more likely to carefully scrutinize the different elements of the message. Because they are motivated by concerns of deception, they are afraid of being misinformed, and tuned toward Voluven (Hydroxyethyl Starch in Sodium Chloride Injection)- FDA cues confirming that the message cannot be trusted. Voluven (Hydroxyethyl Starch in Sodium Chloride Injection)- FDA the advertising literature, the concept of advertising skepticism refers to individuals who distrust the information provided by advertising, and are more likely to critically process advertisements (Obermiller and Spangenberg, 1998).

We argue that any contesting strategy may be used in such critical processing. Individuals who are concerned about being misinformed may focus on the inaccuracy of arguments (i. The result of this processing is a discounting of the persuasive message so that people need not question the accuracy of their existing belief-system.

Moreover, when people are concerned about being fooled, persuasion knowledge (Friestad and Wright, 1994) is likely to be activated. People will be focused on the strategies that persuaders use to convince them to change their behavior.

Proposition 3: When concerns of deception are present, people are likely to use contesting strategies to resist persuasion. Previous research has revealed that threats to freedom are inherently related to contesting strategies, particularly contesting the message (i. Fukada (1986) demonstrated that participants who were warned of the persuasive intent of a message and therefore experienced reactance engaged in more counter arguing than participants who were not warned (cf.

Many studies have observed that people engage in counter arguing when their freedoms are threatened. Threats to freedom have previously also been related to source derogation (i. For example, Smith (1977) found that participants who were exposed to a threatening message exerted source derogation on three dimensions: objectiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness.

Hence, when exposed to threatening information, people evaluate the source of the message as someone less expert, as less objective, and as less trustworthy. Recently, Boerman et al. Being aware of the persuasive Voluven (Hydroxyethyl Starch in Sodium Chloride Injection)- FDA often arouses reactance, which affects the activation of persuasion knowledge about the strategy that is applied. People who feel that exposure to a persuasive message threatens their freedom are particularly motivated to restore their freedom.

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Comments:

01.04.2019 in 05:28 Чеслав:
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