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Levy To Raise A Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum Classrooms, Locker Rooms, Bedrooms, and the Hidden Struggles of American Boyhood Emma Brown Single On Purpose: Redefine Everything. Brahma Department of Pharmacology NEIGRIHMS, Shillong how the human body act.

What is Pharmacokinetics endocrinologist the human body act on the drugs. Pharmacokinetics is the quantitative study of drug movement in, through and out of the body. Intensity of effect is related to concentration of the drug at the site of action, which depends on its pharmacokinetic properties Pharmacokinetic properties of particular drug is important to determine the route of administration, dose, onset of action, peak action time, duration of action and frequency of dosing 3.

The Pharmacokinetic Process 5. The Pharmacokinetic Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum 6. Biological Membrane - image Drug molecules can cross cell m. Passive transport (down hill movement) Most important Mechanism for most of the Drugs Majority of drugs diffuses across the membrane in the direction of concentration gradient No active role of the membrane Proportional to lipid : water partition coefficient Lipid soluble drugs diffuse by dissolving in the lipoidal matrix of the membrane Characteristics Not requiring energy Having no saturation Having no carriers Not resisting competitive inhibition Affecting factors : 9.

Passive transport Affecting factors : the size free radic biol med molecule lipid solubility polarity degree of ionization the PH of the environment such as: fluid of body fluid in cell blood, urine The drugs which are Unionized, low polarit.

Remember The drugs which Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum Unionized, low polarity and higher lipid solubility are easy to permeate membrane. The drugs which are ionized, high polarity and lower lipid solubility are difficult to permeate membrane. Most of drugs are weak acids or weak base. The ionization of drugs may journal of exotic pet medicine reduce their Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum to permeate membranes.

The degree of ionization of drugs is determined by the Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum pH and their pKa. Filtration Involve specific membran. Specific, saturable and inhibitable Depending on Energy requirement - Can be either Facilitated (passive) or Active Transport Move substrate of a singl. Facilitative transporters Move substrate of a single class (uniporters) down a concentration gradient No energy dependent Similar to entry of glucose into muscle (GLUT 4) Active (concen.

ATP hydrolysis) Secondary transporters - utilize energy stored in voltage and ion Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum generated by a primary active transporter (e. Pinocytosis It involves the invagination of a part of the cell membrane and trapping within the cell of a small vesicle containing extra cellular constituents.

The vesicle contents can than be released within the cell, or extruded from the other side of the cell. Pinocytosis is important for the transport of some macromolecules (e. Absorption is the transfer o. Absorption of Drugs Absorption is the transfer of a drug from its Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum of administration to the blood stream Most of drugs are absorbed by the way of passive transport Intravenous administration has no absorption Fraction of administered dose and rate of absorption are Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum Drug properties:.

Factors affecting absorption Drug properties: lipid solubility, molecular Hylaform (Hylan B Dermal Filler Gel)- FDA, and polarity etc Blood flow to the absorption site Total surface area available for absorption Contact time at the absorption surface Affinity with special tissue Routes of Administration (important): Route of admi.

As a Result, the concentration of drug in the systemic circulation will be reduced. Bioavailability Bioavailability refers to the rate pigs extent Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum absorption of a drug from dosage form as determined by its concentration-time curve in blood or by its excretion in urine.

It is a measure of the fraction (F) of administered dose of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation in the unchanged form Bioavailability of drug injected i.

MTC MEC It is the passage of drug. The extent of distribution of drug depends on its lipid solubility, ionization at physiological pH (dependent on pKa), extent of binding to plasma and tissue proteins and differences in regional blood flow, disease like CHF, uremia, cirrhosis Movement of drug - until equilibration between unbound drug in plasma Vigadrone (Vigabatrin for Oral Solution)- FDA tissue fluids Definition: Apparent Vol.

Blood brain barrier (BBB) : includes the capillary endothelial cells (which have tight junctions and lack large intracellular pores) and an investment of glial tissue, over the capillaries. A similar barrier is loctated in the choroid plexus Brain and CSF Penetration BBB is lipoidal. BBB is lipoidal and limits the entry of non-lipid soluble drugs (amikacin, gentamicin, neostigmine etc.

This is used latter in parkinsonism. Only lipid soluble Drugs can pen. Plasma Protein Binding Plasma protein binding (PPB): Most drugs possess physicochemical affinity for plasma proteins. Increasing concentration of drug can progressively saturate the binding sites The clinical significant implications of PPB are: a) Highly PPB drugs are largely restricted Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum the vascular compartment and tend to have lower Vd.

Drugs may also accumulate in specifi. Tissue storage Drugs may also accumulate in specific organs or get bound to specific tissue constituents, e. Biotransformation Metabolism of Drugs Chemical alteration of. Biotransformation is required for protection of body from Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum metabolites Active drug and its me.

In addition to liver, this isoforms are expressed in intestine (responsible for first pass metabolism at this site) and kidney too Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconzole, itraconazole, verapamil, diltiazem and a constituent of grape fruit juice is responsible for unwanted interaction with terfenadine and Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum Rifampicin, phenytoin, carbmazepine, phenobarbital are inducers of the CYP 3A4 53.

Phase I - Reduction This reaction is conversed of oxidation and involves CYP 450 enzymes working in the opposite direction. Examples - Chloramphenicol, levodopa, halothane and warfarin Levodopa (DOPA) Dopamine DOPA-decarboxylase This is cleavage of drug molec.

Phase I - Hydrolysis This is cleavage of drug molecule by taking up Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum a molecule of water. Similarly amides balance polypeptides are hydrolyzed by amidase and peptidases.

Hydrolysis occurs in liver, intestines, plasma and other tissues. Decyclization: is opening up of ring structure of the cyclic molecule, e. Phase II metabolism Conjugation of the drug or its phase I metabolite with an endogenous substrate - polar highly ionized organic acid to be excreted in urine or bile - high energy requirements Glucoronide conjugation - most important synthetic reaction Compounds with hydroxyl or carboxylic acid group are easily conjugated with glucoronic acid - derived from glucose Examples: Chloramphenicol, aspirin, morphine, metroniazole, bilirubin, thyroxine Drug glucuronides, excreted in bile, can be hydrolyzed in the gut by bacteria, producing beta-glucoronidase - liberated drug is reabsorbed and undergoes the same fate - enterohepatic Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse (Periogard)- Multum (e.

Acetylation: Compounds having amino or hydrazine residues are conjugated with the help of acetyl CoA, e. Methionine and cysteine act as methyl donors. Examples: adrenaline, histamine, nicotinic acid. Factors affecting Biotransformation Factors affecting biotransformation C oncurrent use of drugs: Induction and inhibition G enetic polymorphism P ollutant exposure from environment or industry P athological status A ge One drug can inhibit metabolism o.

Excretion Excretion is a transport proced.



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